Martinique woman

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Martinique woman

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Intermarriage between Martinicans and metropolitans is fairly common. Departmentalization and concomitant economic change have transformed the rural sugar plantation character of the island into one highly dependent on the tertiary sector and urban activity.

One-third of the island's population converges daily into Fort-de-France, whose narrow symmetrically squared streets are as congested during the day as they are empty at night.

Distinctive colonial-era architecture adapted to the tropics—wood and stone constructions of large, open spaces with verandas and light filtering but wind porous windows—is gradually giving way to more "functional," enclosed, air-conditioned construction.

Such architectural change, especially in government buildings, projects a less colonial look and feel in favor of a more uniform and efficient French model.

An unwalled, conical straw shelter—the carbet—still dots the landscape and is reminiscent of Amerindian days. In addition to the classic war memorials which dot villages throughout France and therefore Martinique , monuments to Victor Schoelcher, the leader of the abolitionist movement, are also common.

One monument in particular—a statue in the Savanna central park of the Fort-de-France of the Empress Josephine, the Martinique-born wife of Napoleon Bonaparte—has been the object of continuous vandalism for those who see it as a symbol of racism and continued colonialism Napoleon's decision to reinstate slavery is attributed to the influence of Josephine.

Food in Daily Life. Until supermarkets and imported common cuisine including steak-and-fries and fast food chains proliferated, daily Martinican cuisine was characterized by a unique blend of French and Creole cooking, often laced with piment hot pepper.

Open air markets still supply locally grown fruits bananas, coconuts, guava, pineapples, mangoes, love apples, and passion fruit and vegetables breadfruit, chinese cabbage, yams, gumbo, and manioc.

Much Martinican cuisine is prepared from seafood and shellfish including salted cod, lambi conch , octopus, blaff boiled fish with chives and the national dish, court-bouillon fish in a spicy tomato sauce.

However, one-quarter of the average household food budget is now spent on mostly imported meats and poultry, especially beef. Restaurants have yet to cultivate the same air of sophistication and hospitality as in France.

Food Customs at Ceremonial Occasions. Boudin —a fat sausage of spicy pig's blood—is a staple at all holidays. At Easter and on Pentecost a spicy dish of crab and rice, matoutou , is always served.

Small fried vegetable or fish cakes acras , used to be reserved for saints days but have become a popular appetizer. Special occasions call for a gumbo and vegetable soup with crab or salted meat calalou.

East Indian influence is evident in the colombo , a mutton, goat, or chicken curry. No social gathering is complete without drinking a ti-punch straight rum with a twist of lemon sweetened with cane sugar or a planteur fruit juice and rum.

Shrubb rum with marinated orange or tangerine rinds is served at Christmas. Basic Economy. The economy is linked to that of France. The agricultural basis for the island—banana, sugar, and pineapple plantations—is heavily subsidized by the French economy.

Land Tenure and Property. Nearly one-half of large land holdings were inherited from colonial-era distributions. Land division for inheritance purposes is supposed to follow normal French legal practice but unresolved plot disputes abound.

Commercial Activities. While the agricultural sector employs only about 10 percent of the population, approximately one-third of workers are in government service.

Another one-third of the workforce is chronically unemployed. Major Industries. Sugar cane processing and tourism are the major industries.

Imports are equal to more than five times exports. Primary imports are consumer goods and agro-industrial products. Major exports are bananas, pineapples, flowers, and rum.

Martinique's principal trading partners include metropolitan France, Great Britain, Germany, and Guadeloupe. Classes and Castes. Universal suffrage and departmentalization i.

Mulattos mixed-race persons still retain a residual social edge over those who are descended more directly from exclusively African forebears.

Symbols of Social Stratification. Western dress, urban outlook, white collar employment, and automobile ownership are all traits of social advancement.

However, the most direct hallmark of upper class status besides skin color is the use of the French language rather than Creole and a metropolitan accent rather than a West Indian accent.

It sends four deputies representatives to the National Assembly in Paris and in turn receives an appointed prefect who serves as the central government's local executive.

There are also two locally elected assemblies: the general council with forty-five members, which is responsible for roads, housing, transportation, education and overall infrastructure, and a regional council with forty-one members, which oversees economic, social, sanitary, cultural and scientific development.

Leadership and Political Officials. The establishment and exploitation of patron-client relations are significant means of leadership attainment in this small society.

Job and contract distribution is a major criterion for political popularity. Social Problems and Control. The legal and judicial systems of Martinique are those of France, as are the police force and gendarmerie.

They are accorded high legitimacy in the eyes of the populace. The most common crime is theft, especially car break-ins and automobile theft.

Economic and financial crimes are also common. Social and political protest movements have occasionally resulted in fatalities.

Politically motivated vandalism has damaged or destroyed monuments and installations at electricity, telecommunications, police, and court offices.

Military Activity. France's armed forces in Martinique are the third strongest military contingent in the Caribbean after the United States and Cuba.

Land, sea, and air units are represented as well as the gendarmerie. Over five thousand officers, sailors, and soldiers serve in Martinique and Guadeloupe, most of whom are from France.

A special program of "adapted military service" permits Martinican conscripts to remain in the French Antilles, receiving vocational training and contributing to local development.

Martinicans benefit fully from the generous package of welfare programs available to all French citizens, covering health, retirement, widowhood, and large families.

Given the high rate of unemployment in Martinique, the workfare program plays an important role in ensuring a minimal income level for the least privileged.

A joint commission made up of members of the general and regional councils controls local economic development. As part of France, Martinique is part of the European community, and has benefitted over the years from development funds made available through the community.

One third of the population converges in this city daily. Local branches of nongovernmental organizations such as Amnesty International, the Red Cross, Doctors of the World, and Catholic Rescue channel Martinican philanthropy throughout the world.

The Relative Status of Women and Men. Machismo, a long-established tradition within West Indian society, still permeates Martinican society. There is a long matrifocal history of single female-headed households, which since have been heavily subsidized through government family allowance funds.

Women retain power and influence in the private domain but in the more public spheres few women with some exceptions in the fields of education and culture occupy positions of high authority.

Contraception has created a "fertility revolution," decreasing the child bearing average from almost six children in the s to slightly over two in the s.

Since the s over one-half of Martinican women have entered the workforce, where they are disproportionately represented as salaried employees in the services sector where they are employed as servants, clerical workers, and teachers.

Martinican women are three times as underemployed and more unemployed than men. One-fifth of women have achieved middle class economic status. In principle, Martinican couples marry by mutual consent on the basis of love.

Particularly in village society, this typically follows a period of premarital co-residence and, frequently, childbirth. Families often apply subtle pressure to ensure that their eligible children "marry up" or at least do not "marry down" in terms of class and, especially, race as measured by skin color.

Legal formalities for marriage and divorce are those of France; declarations of common law marriage concubinage may be made at town hall.

Approximately two thousand marriages are performed yearly in Martinique; between three hundred and four hundred divorces are processed.

Little more than one-third of eligible age Martinicans age 18 for men, age 15 for women are in fact married. Domestic Unit. The domestic unit in Martinique has evolved somewhere between the nuclear and extended family.

Couples live together with their children without the benefit of formal matrimony, and nearby relatives often assist with child care.

Approximately one-third of single mothers are heads of the household and depend on relatives for child care and housework.

Feminist challenges notwithstanding, it has been a longstanding practice in Martinican society for men to take mistresses. Inheritance follows the laws of France.

In practice, particularly due to a high frequency of "illegitimate" heirs, following death the division of land and real estate may be subject to dispute and protracted litigation.

Child Rearing and Education. Child rearing is strict and often includes corporal punishment. In households where the father is present, it is generally he who is in authority.

Martinique benefits from the same highly developed child care infrastructure and school system in place in France. Higher Education. Even before the establishment of the University of the Antilles—French Guiana in Schoelcher pursuing a higher education in France was the goal of upwardly mobile Martinicans.

University and professional degrees convey high status in local society. University education and professional training abroad particularly in France carry more weight in local eyes than do equivalent educational experiences in Martinique.

Formality and social distancing characterize most interactions between strangers in Martinique. Language is the principal means by which social distance is established and maintained.

Even though Creole is the lingua franca it is much more polite to address the other, at least until a sufficiently close relationship is established, in French.

It can be considered disrespectful to initiate conversations in public spaces i. If one can speak French, addressing a stranger in Creole is to acknowledge that person as socially inferior.

Respecting French language norms of politeness such as second person usage of the more formal vous as opposed to tu is also a must. Shaking hands is part of local etiquette.

Recently, some of the sculptures went back on view at the Field Museum, without their somewhat racially insensitive supporting texts, and were re-curated to focus on their sculptural achievement and de-emphasize the racial categorization.

Interestingly Hoffman herself did not believe in the racial stereotypes she was paid to depict. Interesting, thank you. This is a sculpture by Malvina Hoffman called "Martinique Woman.

Hoffman spent time as a student of the famous Auguste Rodin, whose work we also have on view here in the Museum. Wow that's awesome, thank you.

Black metamorphic stone, like the one used in "Martinique Woman," what is it and why is it not more common in sculpture? Black metamorphic stone is actually a generalized term that can be used to describe basalt or schist, for example.

It was very common in ancient art, but white material, like marble, has been more popular in stone sculpture since the Classical period.

Who made this? This sculpture was created by the American sculptor Malvina Hoffman. This work is one of a number of portrait heads based on her travels through Africa around Martinique Woman.

The modernized realism of this work signaled a deliberate break with earlier treatments of African subjects ranging from caricature to romanticism.

Ramsay Fund. The Museum does not warrant that the use of this work will not infringe on the rights of third parties. It is your responsibility to determine and satisfy copyright or other use restrictions before copying, transmitting, or making other use of protected items beyond that allowed by "fair use," as such term is understood under the United States Copyright Act.

Libraries, Archives, and Museums , and Copyright Watch. For more information about the Museum's rights project, including how rights types are assigned, please see our blog posts on copyright.

If you have any information regarding this work and rights to it, please contact copyright brooklynmuseum. This part of the island is also really far from the hospital, so please keep that in mind.

This one of the most touristy areas of the island, which could be a good thing for certain people. There is a high concentration of Airbnb accommodations in this area, many within walking distance to the beach.

Pro tip: This beach is especially crowded on weekends. Both tourists and locals like to come here to relax, gather with friends and sometimes listen to music.

This beach is perfect for families traveling with children. Located in the capital of Martinique, this beach is within walking distance to the two ports of Fort de France.

Bring a bathing suit to change into after a day of sightseeing and enjoy! Pro tip : There is a grassy area right behind the sand at this beach.

Remember, this is their home so please refrain from startling them, touching them or trying to hold their babies. If you want to be especially kind, feel free to pick up any abandoned trash you may see on your way out.

Pro Tip: There is a flight of stairs you have to go down to access this beach. I do not recommend it if you are physically challenged, as there is quite a steep hike to come back up.

There are picnic tables above the beach overlooking the water, so if you still want to get a glimpse of the sand you can always have a picnic and admire it from afar or take photos.

These seven beaches are just a small few out of the many gorgeous beaches across the island. For a more comprehensive list of beaches to see, things to do, places to eat, and activities in Martinique check out Your Ultimate Guide to Martinique.

Pin this on Pinterest for future reference! I love it! Drooling over the palm tree capture of Les Salines beach. Such clear waters at Martinique.

I sure want to get there to do this beach hopping. Though I might not be able to do all — I always get tempted to stay longer at one.

Thanks for the little tips you have given along the way. Makes it so much more easier to plan and understand what to expect. What a jewel in the sea, a true paradise.

Such beautiful beaches. Les Salines, in particular, has my attention. Congrats on creating the guide book, it sounds perfect for travelers to the Island.

Hope to visit someday. I have not visited the Caribbean, but the lesser Antilles looks like paradise. I like wild beaches that you visit to have the cobwebs blown away, so Basse Point would be perfect for me.

First time to hear about this island!! Great guide for Martinique beaches! I love spending time on the beach, but have never been on this island.

Diamond Beach is my favorite from your list. Caribbean Islands are famous for gorgeous beaches. Hope to be able to visit Martinique someday.

Now these are the kind of things I like to read about — best beaches to visit! Some beaches are good for relaxation and some for activities.

These seven beaches you shared are really the best. Wanna see these when I have a chance travel to Martinique. Your email address will not be published.

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