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These studies were widely ignored. Five case-control studies published in by researchers from the US and UK did draw widespread attention.

These two studies were the largest, and the only ones to carefully exclude ex-smokers from their nonsmokers group. The other three studies also reported that, to quote one, "smoking was powerfully implicated in the causation of lung cancer".

The case-control studies clearly showed a close link between smoking and lung cancer , but were criticized for not showing causality.

Follow-up large prospective cohort studies in the early s showed clearly that smokers died faster, and were more likely to die of lung cancer, cardiovascular disease , and a list of other diseases which lengthened as the studies continued [14].

The British Doctors Study , a longitudinal study of some 40, doctors, began in In , scientists at the Sloan-Kettering Institute in New York City demonstrated that cigarette tar painted on the skin of mice caused fatal cancers.

The Reader's Digest published an article entitled "Cancer by the Carton". On January 11, , the United States Surgeon General 's Report on Smoking and Health was published; this led millions of American smokers to quit, the banning of certain advertising, and the requirement of warning labels on tobacco products.

These results were first widely accepted in the medical community, and publicized among the general public, in the mids.

The health effects of smoking have been significant for the development of the science of epidemiology. As the mechanism of carcinogenicity is radiomimetic or radiological, the effects are stochastic.

Definite statements can be made only on the relative increased or decreased probabilities of contracting a given disease.

For a particular individual, it is impossible to definitively prove a direct causal link between exposure to a radiomimetic poison such as tobacco smoke and the cancer that follows; such statements can only be made at the aggregate population level.

Tobacco companies have capitalized on this philosophical objection and exploited the doubts of clinicians, who consider only individual cases, on the causal link in the stochastic expression of the toxicity as actual disease.

There have been multiple court cases against tobacco companies for having researched the health effects of tobacco, but having then suppressed the findings or formatted them to imply lessened or no hazard.

After a ban on smoking in all enclosed public places was introduced in Scotland in March , there was a 17 percent reduction [ when?

Smoking most commonly leads to diseases affecting the heart and lungs and will commonly affect areas such as hands or feet. First signs of smoking related health issues often show up as numbness in the extremities, with smoking being a major risk factor for heart attacks , chronic obstructive pulmonary disease COPD , emphysema , and cancer , particularly lung cancer , cancers of the larynx and mouth , and pancreatic cancer.

Among male smokers, the lifetime risk of developing lung cancer is This risk is significantly lower in nonsmokers: 1.

A person's increased risk of contracting disease is related to the length of time that a person continues to smoke as well as the amount smoked.

Smoking 20 cigarettes a day entails a higher risk, but not proportionately. If someone stops smoking, then these chances gradually decrease as the damage to their body is repaired.

A year after quitting, the risk of contracting heart disease is half that of a continuing smoker.

Risks vary according to the amount of tobacco smoked, with those who smoke more at greater risk. Smoking so-called "light" cigarettes does not reduce the risk.

Smoking is the cause of about 5 million deaths per year. In the United States, cigarette smoking and exposure to tobacco smoke accounts for roughly one in five, [52] or at least , premature deaths annually.

It is estimated that there are between 1 and 1. In fact, cigarette factories are the most deadly factories in the history of the world. Share of deaths from smoking, [59].

The number of deaths attributed to smoking per , people in [60]. The primary risks of tobacco usage include many forms of cancer, particularly lung cancer , [62] kidney cancer , [63] cancer of the larynx and head and neck , [64] [65] bladder cancer , [66] cancer of the esophagus , [67] cancer of the pancreas [68] and stomach cancer.

SCLC may originate from neuroendocrine cells located in the bronchus called Feyrter cells. The risk of dying from lung cancer before age 85 is The corresponding estimates for lifelong nonsmokers are a 1.

In smoking, long term exposure to compounds found in the smoke e. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease COPD caused by smoking, is a permanent, incurable often terminal reduction of pulmonary capacity characterised by shortness of breath, wheezing, persistent cough with sputum , and damage to the lungs, including emphysema and chronic bronchitis.

Inhalation of tobacco smoke causes several immediate responses within the heart and blood vessels. Within one minute the heart rate begins to rise, increasing by as much as 30 percent during the first 10 minutes of smoking.

Carbon monoxide in tobacco smoke exerts negative effects by reducing the blood's ability to carry oxygen. Smoking also increases the chance of heart disease , stroke , atherosclerosis , and peripheral vascular disease.

According to a study by an international team of researchers , people under 40 are five times more likely to have a heart attack if they smoke.

Exposure to tobacco smoke is known to increase oxidative stress in the body by various mechanisms, including depletion of plasma antioxidants such as vitamin C.

Recent research by American biologists has shown that cigarette smoke also influences the process of cell division in the cardiac muscle and changes the heart's shape.

The usage of tobacco has also been linked to Buerger's disease thromboangiitis obliterans the acute inflammation and thrombosis clotting of arteries and veins of the hands and feet.

Although cigarette smoking causes a greater increase in the risk of cancer than cigar smoking, cigar smokers still have an increased risk for many health problems, including cancer, when compared to non-smokers.

Smoking tends to increase blood cholesterol levels. Furthermore, the ratio of high-density lipoprotein HDL, also known as the "good" cholesterol to low-density lipoprotein LDL, also known as the "bad" cholesterol tends to be lower in smokers compared to non-smokers.

Smoking also raises the levels of fibrinogen and increases platelet production both involved in blood clotting which makes the blood thicker and more likely to clot.

Carbon monoxide binds to hemoglobin the oxygen-carrying component in red blood cells , resulting in a much stabler complex than hemoglobin bound with oxygen or carbon dioxide—the result is permanent loss of blood cell functionality.

Blood cells are naturally recycled after a certain period of time, allowing for the creation of new, functional red blood cells. However, if carbon monoxide exposure reaches a certain point before they can be recycled, hypoxia and later death occurs.

All these factors make smokers more at risk of developing various forms of arteriosclerosis hardening of the arteries. As the arteriosclerosis progresses, blood flows less easily through rigid and narrowed blood vessels, making the blood more likely to form a thrombosis clot.

Sudden blockage of a blood vessel may lead to an infarction stroke or heart attack. However, it is also worth noting that the effects of smoking on the heart may be more subtle.

These conditions may develop gradually given the smoking-healing cycle the human body heals itself between periods of smoking , and therefore a smoker may develop less significant disorders such as worsening or maintenance of unpleasant dermatological conditions, e.

Smoking also increases blood pressure and weakens blood vessels. In addition to increasing the risk of kidney cancer, smoking can also contribute to additional renal damage.

Smokers are at a significantly increased risk for chronic kidney disease than non-smokers. A study of an outbreak of an H1N1 influenza in an Israeli military unit of healthy young men to determine the relation of cigarette smoking to the incidence of clinically apparent influenza, revealed that, of smokers, Influenza was also more severe in the smokers; The effect of cigarette smoking upon epidemic influenza was studied prospectively among 1, male college students.

Influenza incidence among smokers of 1 to 20 cigarettes daily was intermediate between non-smokers and heavy cigarette smokers. Surveillance of a influenza outbreak at a military base for women in Israel revealed that influenza symptoms developed in Smoking seems to cause a higher relative influenza-risk in older populations than in younger populations.

Smoking may substantially contribute to the growth of influenza epidemics affecting the entire population. Perhaps the most serious oral condition that can arise is that of oral cancer.

However, smoking also increases the risk for various other oral diseases, some almost completely exclusive to tobacco users.

The National Institutes of Health , through the National Cancer Institute , determined in that "cigar smoking causes a variety of cancers including cancers of the oral cavity lip, tongue, mouth, throat , esophagus , larynx , and lung.

Smokeless tobacco causes gingival recession and white mucosal lesions. Smokers have significantly greater loss of bone height than nonsmokers, and the trend can be extended to pipe smokers to have more bone loss than nonsmokers.

Smoking has been proven to be an important factor in the staining of teeth. Smoking is also linked to susceptibility to infectious diseases, particularly in the lungs pneumonia.

Smoking more than 20 cigarettes a day increases the risk of tuberculosis by two to four times, [] [] and being a current smoker has been linked to a fourfold increase in the risk of invasive disease caused by the pathogenic bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae.

Smoking increases the risk of Kaposi's sarcoma in people without HIV infection. The incidence of impotence difficulty achieving and maintaining penile erection is approximately 85 percent higher in male smokers compared to non-smokers.

Smoking is harmful to the ovaries , potentially causing female infertility , and the degree of damage is dependent upon the amount and length of time a woman smokes.

Nicotine and other harmful chemicals in cigarettes interfere with the body's ability to create estrogen , a hormone that regulates folliculogenesis and ovulation.

Also, cigarette smoking interferes with folliculogenesis, embryo transport, endometrial receptivity, endometrial angiogenesis , uterine blood flow and the uterine myometrium.

American Psychologist stated, "Smokers often report that cigarettes help relieve feelings of stress. However, the stress levels of adult smokers are slightly higher than those of nonsmokers, adolescent smokers report increasing levels of stress as they develop regular patterns of smoking, and smoking cessation leads to reduced stress.

Far from acting as an aid for mood control, nicotine dependency seems to exacerbate stress. This is confirmed in the daily mood patterns described by smokers, with normal moods during smoking and worsening moods between cigarettes.

Thus, the apparent relaxant effect of smoking only reflects the reversal of the tension and irritability that develop during nicotine depletion.

Dependent smokers need nicotine to remain feeling normal. Users report feelings of relaxation , sharpness, calmness , and alertness.

Generally, the unpleasant symptoms will eventually vanish over time, with repeated use, as the body builds a tolerance to the chemicals in the cigarettes, such as nicotine.

Smokers report higher levels of everyday stress. The deleterious mood effects of abstinence explain why smokers suffer more daily stress than non-smokers and become less stressed when they quit smoking.

Deprivation reversal also explains much of the arousal data, with deprived smokers being less vigilant and less alert than non-deprived smokers or non-smokers.

Recent studies have shown a positive relationship between psychological distress and salivary cotinine levels in smoking and non-smoking adults, indicating that both firsthand and secondhand smoke exposure may lead to higher levels of mental stress.

Medical researchers have found that smoking is a predictor of divorce. The usage of tobacco can also create cognitive dysfunction.

There seems to be an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease , although "case—control and cohort studies produce conflicting results as to the direction of the association between smoking and AD".

Most notably, some studies have found that patients with Alzheimer's disease are more likely not to have smoked than the general population, which has been interpreted to suggest that smoking offers some protection against Alzheimer's.

However, the research in this area is limited and the results are conflicting; some studies show that smoking increases the risk of Alzheimer's disease.

Some older analyses have claimed that non-smokers are up to twice as likely as smokers to develop Alzheimer's disease. Researchers without tobacco lobby influence have concluded the complete opposite: Smokers are almost twice as likely as nonsmokers to develop Alzheimer's disease.

Former and current smokers have a lower incidence of Parkinson's disease compared to people who have never smoked, [] [] although the authors stated that it was more likely that the movement disorders which are part of Parkinson's disease prevented people from being able to smoke than that smoking itself was protective.

Another study considered a possible role of nicotine in reducing Parkinson's risk: nicotine stimulates the dopaminergic system of the brain, which is damaged in Parkinson's disease, while other compounds in tobacco smoke inhibit MAO-B , an enzyme which produces oxidative radicals by breaking down dopamine.

In many respects, nicotine acts on the nervous system in a similar way to caffeine. Some writings have stated that smoking can also increase mental concentration ; one study documents a significantly better performance on the normed Advanced Raven Progressive Matrices test after smoking.

Most smokers, when denied access to nicotine , exhibit withdrawal symptoms such as irritability, jitteriness, dry mouth , and rapid heart beat.

Unlike some recreational drugs , nicotine does not measurably alter a smoker's motor skills , judgement , or language abilities while under the influence of the drug.

Tobacco withdrawal has been shown to cause clinically significant distress. A very large percentage of schizophrenics smoke tobacco as a form of self-medication.

In , a meta-analysis found that smokers were at greater risk of developing psychotic illness. Recent studies have linked smoking to anxiety disorders, suggesting the correlation and possibly mechanism may be related to the broad class of anxiety disorders, and not limited to just depression.

Current and ongoing research attempt to explore the addiction-anxiety relationship. Data from multiple studies suggest that anxiety disorders and depression play a role in cigarette smoking.

A number of studies have shown that tobacco use is a significant factor in miscarriages among pregnant smokers, and that it contributes to a number of other threats to the health of the fetus.

It slightly increases the risk of neural tube defects. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure and maternal smoking during pregnancy have been shown to cause lower infant birth weights.

Studies have shown an association between prenatal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and conduct disorder in children. Smoking is known to increase levels of liver enzymes that break down drugs and toxins.

That means that drugs cleared by these enzymes are cleared more quickly in smokers, which may result in the drugs not working.

Specifically, levels of CYP1A2 and CYP2A6 are induced: [] [] substrates for 1A2 include caffeine and tricyclic antidepressants such as amitriptyline ; substrates for 2A6 include the anticonvulsant, valproic acid.

Studies suggest that smoking decreases appetite, but did not conclude that overweight people should smoke or that their health would improve by smoking.

This is also a cause of heart diseases. Smoking increases the risk of symptoms associated with Crohn's disease a dose-dependent effect with use of greater than 15 cigarettes per day.

Some preliminary data from suggested a reduced incidence of uterine fibroids , [] but overall the evidence is unconvincing.

Current research shows that tobacco smokers who are exposed to residential radon are twice as likely to develop lung cancer as non-smokers.

New research has found that women who smoke are at significantly increased risk of developing an abdominal aortic aneurysm , a condition in which a weak area of the abdominal aorta expands or bulges, and is the most common form of aortic aneurysm.

Smoking leads to an increased risk of bone fractures, especially hip fractures. Furthermore, diabetic smokers have worse outcomes than diabetic non-smokers.

In addition to the numerous documented negative health effects of smoking, several types of "smoker's paradoxes" cases where smoking appears to have specific beneficial effects have been observed.

Smoke, or any partially burnt organic matter, contains carcinogens cancer-causing agents. The potential effects of smoking, such as lung cancer, can take up to 20 years to manifest themselves.

Historically, women began smoking en masse later than men, so an increased death rate caused by smoking amongst women did not appear until later.

The male lung cancer death rate decreased in — roughly 20 years after the initial decline in cigarette consumption in men. A fall in consumption in women also began in [] but by had not manifested in a decrease in lung cancer-related mortalities amongst women.

Smoke contains several carcinogenic pyrolytic products that bind to DNA and cause genetic mutations. Particularly potent carcinogens are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PAH , which are toxicated to mutagenic epoxides.

The first PAH to be identified as a carcinogen in tobacco smoke was benzopyrene , which has been shown to toxicate into an epoxide that irreversibly attaches to a cell's nuclear DNA, which may either kill the cell or cause a genetic mutation.

If the mutation inhibits programmed cell death , the cell can survive to become a cancer cell. Similarly, acrolein , which is abundant in tobacco smoke, also irreversibly binds to DNA, causes mutations and thus also cancer.

However, it needs no activation to become carcinogenic. There are over 19 known carcinogens in cigarette smoke. Sidestream tobacco smoke, or exhaled mainstream smoke, is particularly harmful.

Because exhaled smoke exists at lower temperatures than inhaled smoke, chemical compounds undergo changes which can cause them to become more dangerous.

As well, smoke undergoes changes as it ages, which causes the transformation of the compound NO into the more toxic NO 2. Further, volatilization causes smoke particles to become smaller, and thus more easily embedded deep into the lung of anyone who later breathes the air.

In addition to chemical, nonradioactive carcinogens, tobacco and tobacco smoke contain small amounts of lead Pb and polonium Po both of which are radioactive carcinogens.

The presence of polonium in mainstream cigarette smoke has been experimentally measured at levels of 0. Research by NCAR radiochemist Ed Martell suggested that radioactive compounds in cigarette smoke are deposited in "hot spots" where bronchial tubes branch, that tar from cigarette smoke is resistant to dissolving in lung fluid and that radioactive compounds have a great deal of time to undergo radioactive decay before being cleared by natural processes.

Indoors, these radioactive compounds can linger in secondhand smoke, and greater exposure would occur when these radioactive compounds are inhaled during normal breathing, which is deeper and longer than when inhaling cigarettes.

Damage to the protective epithelial tissue from smoking only increases the prolonged retention of insoluble polonium compounds produced from burning tobacco.

Martell estimated that a carcinogenic radiation dose of 80— rads is delivered to the lung tissue of most smokers who die of lung cancer. Smoking an average of 1.

The combination of carcinogenic tar and radiation in a sensitive organ such as lungs increases the risk of cancer. In contrast, a review of tobacco smoke carcinogens published in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute states that "levels of polonium in tobacco smoke are not believed to be great enough to significantly impact lung cancer in smokers.

Free radicals and pro-oxidants in cigarettes damage blood vessels and oxidize LDL cholesterol. Nicotine , which is contained in cigarettes and other smoked tobacco products, is a stimulant and is one of the main factors leading to continued tobacco smoking.

Nicotine is a highly addictive psychoactive chemical. When tobacco is smoked, most of the nicotine is pyrolyzed ; a dose sufficient to cause mild somatic dependency and mild to strong psychological dependency remains.

The amount of nicotine absorbed by the body from smoking depends on many factors, including the type of tobacco, whether the smoke is inhaled, and whether a filter is used.

There is also a formation of harmane a MAO inhibitor from the acetaldehyde in cigarette smoke, which seems to play an important role in nicotine addiction [] probably by facilitating dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens in response to nicotine stimuli.

According to studies by Henningfield and Benowitz, nicotine is more addictive than cannabis , caffeine , ethanol , cocaine , and heroin when considering both somatic and psychological dependence.

However, due to the stronger withdrawal effects of ethanol , cocaine and heroin , nicotine may have a lower potential for somatic dependence than these substances.

Ingesting a compound by smoking is one of the most rapid and efficient methods of introducing it into the bloodstream, second only to injection, which allows for the rapid feedback which supports the smokers' ability to titrate their dosage.

On average it takes about ten seconds for the substance to reach the brain. As a result of the efficiency of this delivery system, many smokers feel as though they are unable to cease.

Of those who attempt cessation and last three months without succumbing to nicotine, most are able to remain smoke-free for the rest of their lives.

Depression is also common in teenage smokers; teens who smoke are four times as likely to develop depressive symptoms as their nonsmoking peers.

Although nicotine does play a role in acute episodes of some diseases including stroke , impotence , and heart disease by its stimulation of adrenaline release, which raises blood pressure, [91] heart and respiration rate, and free fatty acids , the most serious longer term effects are more the result of the products of the smouldering combustion process.

This has led to the development of various nicotine delivery systems, such as the nicotine patch or nicotine gum , that can satisfy the addictive craving by delivering nicotine without the harmful combustion by-products.

This can help the heavily dependent smoker to quit gradually, while discontinuing further damage to health. Recent evidence has shown that smoking tobacco increases the release of dopamine in the brain, specifically in the mesolimbic pathway, the same neuro-reward circuit activated by drugs of abuse such as heroin and cocaine.

This suggests nicotine use has a pleasurable effect that triggers positive reinforcement. The carcinogenity of tobacco smoke is not explained by nicotine per se, which is not carcinogenic or mutagenic, although it is a metabolic precursor for several compounds which are.

It is worth noting that nicotine , although frequently implicated in producing tobacco addiction, is not significantly addictive when administered alone.

Second-hand smoke is a mixture of smoke from the burning end of a cigarette, pipe or cigar, and the smoke exhaled from the lungs of smokers.

It is involuntarily inhaled, lingers in the air hours after cigarettes have been extinguished, and may cause a wide range of adverse health effects, including cancer, respiratory infections and asthma.

Second-hand smoke has been estimated to cause 38, deaths per year, of which 3, are deaths from lung cancer in non-smokers.

The current US Surgeon General's Report concludes that there is no established risk-free level of exposure to second-hand smoke.

Short exposures to second-hand smoke are believed to cause blood platelets to become stickier, damage the lining of blood vessels , decrease coronary flow velocity reserves, and reduce heart rate variability, potentially increasing the risk of heart attack.

Chewing tobacco has been known to cause cancer, particularly of the mouth and throat. These claims, however, are not supported by the available evidence.

Like other forms of smoking, cigar smoking poses a significant health risk depending on dosage: risks are greater for those who inhale more when they smoke, smoke more cigars, or smoke them longer.

Although it has been claimed that people who smoke few cigars have no increased risk, a more accurate statement is that their risks are proportionate to their exposure.

Cigar smoking also can cause cancers of the lung and larynx , where the increased risk is less than that of cigarettes. Many of these cancers have extremely low cure rates.

Cigar smoking also increases the risk of lung and heart diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. A common belief among users is that the smoke of a hookah waterpipe, narghile is significantly less dangerous than that from cigarettes.

Each hookah session typically lasts more than 40 minutes, and consists of 50 to inhalations that each range from 0.

A study on hookah smoking and cancer in Pakistan was published in Carcinoembryonic antigen CEA is a marker found in several forms of cancer.

Levels in exclusive hookah smokers were lower compared to cigarette smokers although the difference was not as statistically significant as that between a hookah smoker and a non-smoker.

Dipping tobacco, commonly referred to as snuff , is also put in the mouth, but it is a flavored powder. Dipping tobacco does not need to be chewed for the nicotine to be absorbed.

First-time users of these products often become nauseated and dizzy. Long-term effects include bad breath, yellowed teeth, and an increased risk of oral cancer.

Users of dipping tobacco are believed to face less risk of some cancers than are smokers, but are still at greater risk than people who do not use any tobacco products.

Education and counselling by physicians of children and adolescents have been found to be effective in decreasing tobacco use. Average price of a pack of 20 cigarettes, measured in international dollars in Taxes as a share of cigarette price, [].

Types of bans on tobacco advertising, []. Support to help quit tobacco use, []. Though tobacco may be consumed by either smoking or other smokeless methods such as chewing, the World Health Organization WHO only collects data on smoked tobacco.

In , smoking was practiced by 1. As of , about twenty percent of young teens 13—15 smoked worldwide, with 80, to , children taking up the addiction every day, roughly half of whom live in Asia.

Half of those who begin smoking in adolescent years are projected to go on to smoke for 15 to 20 years. Teens are more likely to use e-cigarettes than cigarettes.

Manufacturers don't have to report what is in e-cigs, and most teens either say its just flavoring, or don't know. The WHO states that "Much of the disease burden and premature mortality attributable to tobacco use disproportionately affect the poor".

Of the 1. Rates of smoking have leveled off or declined in the developed world. The WHO in projected The shift in prevalence of tobacco smoking to a younger demographic, mainly in the developing world, can be attributed to several factors.

Adolescents have more difficulty understanding the long-term health risks that are associated with smoking and are also more easily influenced by "images of romance, success, sophistication, popularity, and adventure which advertising suggests they could achieve through the consumption of cigarettes".

This shift in marketing towards adolescents and even children in the tobacco industry is debilitating to organizations' and countries' efforts to improve child health and mortality in the developing world.

It reverses or halts the effects of the work that has been done to improve health care in these countries, and although smoking is deemed as a "voluntary" health risk, the marketing of tobacco towards very impressionable adolescents in the developing world makes it less of a voluntary action and more of an inevitable shift.

Many government regulations have been passed to protect citizens from harm caused by public environmental tobacco smoke.

The "Pro-Children Act of " prohibits smoking within any facility that provides health care, day care, library services, or elementary and secondary education to children in the US.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 4 October For cannabis, see Effects of cannabis. It may be suggested that the chief reason that the subject has received so little attention from members of the medical profession is that the majority of them as of the general community practice smoking in one form of another, and do not wish to inquire too closely into a habit in defense of which so much can be said from the hedonistic but so little from the hygienic standpoint.

Play media. Main article: Smoking and pregnancy. Main article: Epigenetic effects of smoking. See also: List of additives in cigarettes. See also: List of cigarette smoke carcinogens.

Benzopyrene diol epoxide, an extremely carcinogenic cancer-causing metabolite of benzopyrene, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon produced by burning tobacco.

Benzopyrene, a major mutagen in tobacco smoke, in an adduct to DNA []. Main article: Nicotine. Main article: Passive smoking.

Percentage of males smoking any tobacco product. Note that there is a difference between the scales used for females and for males.

World Health Organization. Archived from the original on Retrieved May Retrieved 13 May Medical Anthropology Quarterly.

Geneva: World Health Organization. The New England Journal of Medicine. Atlanta, U. British Journal of Nursing.

Statistical Methods in Medical Research. Archived from the original PDF on Explorations in Economic History. Suchtmed in German. Archived from the original on November 5, International Journal of Epidemiology.

Unesco, ID Giden Lincecum Herbarium. University of Texas. Retrieved 9 December Primary malignant growths of the lung.

For other uses, see The Tobacconist. The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view of the subject.

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